shoulders, as in Greece.’33 Instead of appearing

rounded mantle or tebenna, the ancestor of the Roman
Analyzed by Emeline Richardson as the antecedents of
the Roman honorary togatus statue. There are really
numerous Etruscan statuettes of naked kouroi and
Nude dancing bodies (although these occasionally
wear something, a necklace, or shoes, to prevent the
complete nudity of their Greek models).’134 Pliny tells
us, and the monuments show, that the Etruscans and
After Romans preferred numbers of warriors, usually
wearing armor, rather than naked like the Greeks.’35
When people on the fringes of the Etruscan world
learned to depict the life-size human figure in order to
Signify a dead warrior, a hero, they copied the
Such a barbarian
Above, it’s level, like a stele; beneath, its legs look like the
legs of a kouros. It’s nude, but armed. Its nudity
presents a hard issue. It may have been inspired
by that of the kouroi. On the other hand, it could
may have actually fought naked. The completely armed
Warrior of Capestrano, from Chieti, is distinguished
as an important figure by the axe on his left shoulder-and his huge helmet-but he wears the Etruscan type of perizoma.137 Some years ago, the Capestrano Warrior reigned as a unique image, challenging to
explain in the context of the art of historical Italy. In the
and sixth centuries B.C. have come to light, allowing
us to see more clearly how artists in Italy responded to
the innovation of the monumental statues of kouroi.138
The idea of the kouros came from Greece indirectly,
by way of Etruscan art, where the kouros is not nude,
In this way, the Etruscans interpreted Greek innovations for barbarian, nonGreek cultures.

antiquity. The head is like that of an Archaic kouros.
The arms and their position-Venus pudica-are of
course not those of a kouros. A Greek artist in Italy,

The comparison between mainland Greece and Italy in
the Archaic period in the issue of artistic nudity extends to female figures in addition to male.

Previously traditions endured-spiritual, social, and
expressed in fresh, unconventional artistic kinds.
The image of the naked female, banned from Classical Greek artwork, makes astonishing looks in
Etruscan art. Two examples will serve to reveal how
differently this image was perceived. The first is the
large-scale statuette of a nude goddess, found in Orvieto, in the refuge of Cannicella, over 100 years
ago, in 1884. Its distinct features have recently been
more closely analyzed.139 The figure, half life-size,
made of Parian marble, and rather clearly of Greek

workmanship,was busted,fixed,and reworkedin


for which the reigning Greek artistic style provided no
model, might well have created such a odd work
as this one, whose strange appearance expresses a pressure
between Greek artistic tradition on the one hand and
native faith and ritual on the other.
Another peculiarly Etruscan monument reflects the
Manner where the Greek tradition of nudity was imported and transformed. Again, we have a surprising
Event of a nude female figure. Later in date, but
still earlier than the Hellenistic period, when the sort
was accepted in Greek artwork, we see husband and wife
under the rounded tebenna, which functions as a blanket,
a symbol of their union. Such an picture of
Doesn’t appear in Greek art. In Etruscan art, too, it is
Etruscan, too, is the similarity
of their manner of dressing-in this case, their nudity.
Clearly, the Etruscans did not perceive the contrast
between male and female nudity, so characteristic of
Greek Classical artwork.
who saw it? Was this nudity a signal of the intimacy of
the marriage bed? Or did it signify a kind of heroization of the couple, as ancestors, revealed in death
dressed in the Greek fashion, in a “epic” nudity
considered fitting for the afterworld? We do not know.
Additionally associated with female nudity, or rather exposure, is
the frequent image of the breastfeeding or suckling mom,
a motif absent from Classical Greek art. Several monuments, for example, symbolize the rite suckling and
adoption of the adult Heracles by Uni (Hera). is unknown in mainland Greek artwork. On an
Etruscan mirror from Volterra, the scene refers to a